The basic manufacturing techniques—sawing, bruting, blocking, and polishing—are described with regard to the decisions that must be made to obtain the greatest value from a specific piece of rough. Over the last 25 years, the diamond-cutting industry worldwide has been revolutionized by sophisticated instruments for marking.
The first guild of diamond cutters and polishers (Diamantaire) was formed in 1375 in Nuremberg, Germany and led to the development of various types of "cut". This has two meanings in relation to diamonds. The first is the shape: square, oval, and so on.
The second relates to the specific quality of cut within the shape, and the quality and price will vary greatly based on the cut quality. Since diamonds are one of the hardest materials, special diamond-coated surfaces are used to grind the diamond down.
The first major development in diamond cutting came with the "Point Cut" during the latter half of the 14th century: the Point Cut follows the natural shape of an octahedral rough diamond crystal, eliminating some waste in the cutting process.